#header-inner img {margin: 0 auto !important; #header-inner {text-align: Center ;} Fiji Coupfourpointfive: 2010-08-08

Saturday, August 14, 2010

Wall Stree Journal: Fiji's influence could trigger a 'coup culture' in other South Pacific nations.


By Neil Sands

Wall Street Journal/Pacific Media Watch): The outlook for Fiji, one of the world's most famous tourist destinations, appears increasingly grim as the international community bickers with its military leader and its economy falters under heavy government debt.

The South Pacific island nation has lurched from crisis to crisis under military ruler Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama, who seized power in a 2006 coup. The US, Europe and Australia have condemned his government and called for national elections, but Bainimarama has resisted, saying the earliest he will return Fiji to a popular vote is 2014.

The government did not respond to requests for comment.

Fiji's fate matters to its neighbors in Asia and the South Pacific, a region of a dozen countries that has relied heavily on tourism in recent years as other mainstay industries such as agriculture and minerals have remained flat. Fiji's economy is larger than those of many of its island neighbors combined, and it is a primary educational center for the region with the largest university.

Australian officials have expressed concern that Fiji's influence could trigger a "coup culture" in other South Pacific nations. Many of the island nations face serious economic challenges; if their troubles worsen, it could trigger flows of immigrants into Australia.

More-optimistic analysts have said Fiji could become a driver of growth in the Pacific if it gets back on track. But in the meantime, some predict another year of negative growth, after Fiji's economy contracted 2.2 percent in 2009. Government officials have approached the International Monetary Fund about a bailout of between $400 million and $500 million to cover $150 million in debt repayments that mature next year. The IMF has signaled that any such bailout will require austerity measures such as slashing the civil-service budget, tightening monetary policy and imposing more fiscal discipline on state-owned enterprises, which could add to Fiji's short-term economic pain..

Fiji remains a tourist draw, attracting nearly 550,000 visitors a year. Tourist numbers have largely bounced back after the 2006 coup, though the ADB says this has been achieved through aggressive price discounting.

Although Fiji's government predicts 1.8 percent growth this year, Keith Leonard, a Fiji-based South Pacific regional director for the Asian Development Bank, says a 0.5% contraction is more likely.

The ADB and World Bank cite Bainimarama's regime as a factor in Fiji's sluggish economic performance. The IMF forecasts foreign direct investment this year will be $264 million, down 36 percent compared with 2006.

"Given Fiji's endowments and its role in the region, I'm not saying it should be an Asian tiger, but it should be the Pacific equivalent" with annual growth of 4 percent to 5  percent, said Leonard. He cited the country's tourist attractions, agricultural land and fisheries, and its work force, which is well-educated compared to that of most Pacific island nations.

Some 40 percent of Fiji's population of 850,000 lives below the poverty line, the ADB says. Export earnings from two of Fiji's main industries have collapsed, with the once-thriving sugar sector hamstrung by poor management and garment manufacturers unable to compete with global players, analysts say. Government debt has ballooned to 70 percent of gross domestic product, well above the ADB's 40 percent target for developing countries.

Human-rights group Amnesty International says foreign investors have been deterred by reports of abuses and alleged efforts by the government to undermine judicial independence and muzzle the media.

When the government abrogated the constitution in 2009 it dismissed all judges and replaced them with hand-picked officials.

A government decree in late June mandated that all Fiji's media must be 90 percent locally owned within three months. The decree threatens the viability of News Ltd.'s wholly owned subsidiary
The Fiji Times, the country's largest-circulation newspaper. News Ltd. is an Australia-based unit of News Corp., owner of Dow Jones & Co., which publishes The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. has said it would be forced to dispose of its Fijian newspaper as the military regime continues a crackdown on the media. A News Ltd. spokesman said the unit was "in the process of actively considering our options at the moment."

The government has denied any human-rights abuses. Bainimarama, an indigenous Fijian, has said that hard-line military rule is the only way to implement measures needed to eradicate institutional racism and corruption endemic in the country before he took power, and to prepare Fiji for democracy.

"This is not an ordinary government, we're trying to bring about reforms and changes, and for that [it is] understood that at some stage we'll need to shut some people up, and stop this from bringing about instability," he said in an interview this month on Australian television. Important changes "will never happen if we open everything out to every Tom, Dick and Harry to have their say."

Revenues in the sector declined about 12 percent last year from 2008.The roots of Fiji's political problems lie in its history as an outpost of the British empire. The British brought Indian laborers to work in sugar plantations, leading to racial divisions with the native Melanesian population after Fiji became independent in 1970.

Ethnic Indians, who form about 40 percent of the population, have traditionally dominated the economy, with indigenous Fijians gravitating toward government and the military. Tensions flared when the Fiji Labour Party gained political ascendancy in the 1987 elections, sparking a series of military coups aimed at reasserting ethnic Fijians' control.

When Bainimarama, an indigenous Fijian, seized power, he said his aim was to prevent ethnic Fijians from imposing policies that discriminated against Indians and to end the country's political turmoil.

Australia and New Zealand have led efforts to isolate Fiji internationally to pressure the government to restore democracy. Canberra and Wellington have imposed "smart sanctions" such as travel bans on the regime's top civil servants, while maintaining aid programs.

Bainimarama has responded by expelling Australian and New Zealand diplomats, including Australia's Acting High Commissioner Sarah Roberts, who was deported in July after being accused of "conducting unfriendly acts" that undermined Fiji's sovereignty. He has also sought increased aid and investment from China in order to minimize the impact of the rift with Fiji's former allies.

Last year, Bainimarama scrapped a pledge to hold elections by 2009 and suspended the constitution, invoking emergency powers that allow him to rule by decree until 2014. His actions broke an agreement with the European Union and cost Fiji more than €60 million in EU aid.

With talks on an IMF-led bailout set to resume in September, the ABD says a major economic overhaul is needed, warning that some painful reforms are necessary to spark long-term growth.

—Patrick Barta contributed to this article.

* The Wall Street Journal is owned by News Corp, whose Australian-based subsidiary, News Ltd, owns The Fiji Times, the country's largest-circulation newspaper.

Aligning wth PACER makes economis sense

By Dr Mere Samisoni

The unelected illegal interim military junta regime (UIIMJR) is always using the word politics or political in a derogatory manner to justify its alleged reform programme. Take a look, for example, at this statement by the Interim Minister of Foreign Affairs:

“Ratu Inoke says PACER is no longer a promising instrument for development as it has been corrupted by regional politics” (Coup 4.5, Tuesday 10th August).

Well – what exactly is politics?

The Chambers Everyday Dictionary defines politics (of actions) in accordance with good policy, expedient, judicious, strategic: (of persons) prudent, discreet, and cunning: political pertaining to polity or government: pertaining to parties differing in their views of government.

In short, it is the process of parleying your opinions of how things should be done, into first policy, then political power, then ultimately and hopefully, into progress and development.

In a democracy anyone who has an opinion may seek the political power to affect it. The tactic is your ability to convince the majority to give you a chance. Eventually though, your political promises will give way to your actual political performance. And it is that which the people will use as their primary yardstick for deciding whether to persist with you, or not.

In that sense, there is nothing intrinsically irremediable or untenable about the political process. Certainly, nothing than is worse than dictatorship, anyway! Democratic politics may sometimes lend itself to scheming, lying and manipulating. But none of that will trump the peoples’ right to decide for themselves in the end. And none of it is worse than the wall-to-wall lies, manipulation and scheming that is necessary for a dictatorship to maintain itself in the face of popular discontent or dissatisfaction.

But what the Regime means when it invokes the term politics, is not what you or I or the dictionary mean when we say it. Their use of the term more closely resembles the sense that the Spanish invoke with their term “politico”. This is a derogatory term that speaks of the habits of some politicians who behave in cunning ways to achieve their personal interest.

The problem with this use of the term is twofold.

First of all, it ignores fact that many people could accuse the UIIMJR of the exact same thing. We see them as using cunning and manipulation to pursue their own political program, which has so far not resulted in any real progress after almost four years. On the other hand, what is very clear to everyone is that the personal interest of the regime members themselves has been taken very good care of (eg. the Mara/Ganilaus, Aiyaz Khaiyum and his friends/relatives, and of course Frank and a number of senior military officers).

Secondly, the regime assumes that everyone else’s political programme is “political”, but theirs is not. This is clearly untrue. Their Charter is nothing if not political!

For a start, they are evidently not pursuing their Charter because it is empirically true or viable (since clearly it has not delivered anything to the people of Fiji yet). They are pursuing it because they believe it will work (one day). Other people prefer to put their faith in other programmess or manifestoes because they think those have a better chance.

That is exactly what politics is – the process of lobbying for one programme or manifesto over another. The UIIMJR cannot accuse other groups of lobbying or prosecuting their own beliefs or opinions, when that is EXACTLY what the Regime is doing in respect of its own Charter!

For all its fine sounding rhetoric, the Charter is nothing more than a collection of opinions about how to create a foundation for a better future. But not only is it merely a collection of opinions, it is actually just a collection of ho-hum ideology and platitudes that has excited little support or advocacy among serious academics or development experts.

Furthermore, it is also a collection of fine-sounding rhetoric that bears little resemblance to the spirit and the manner in which the UIIMJR is ACTUALLY conducting itself. Finally, and most tellingly, the Charter is simply a collection of opinions and assertions that have NOT delivered anything worthwhile to the people of Fiji after almost four years of unbroken negative economic and legal degeneration. 

Additionally, the Land Use Decree, No. 36. 2010 with its the Land Bank Project, being pushed at present, has a parallel in the Philippines where the land bank only benefited a few rich lawyers.

The difference in a democracy, is that the “road to nowhere” can be short-circuited whenever the electorate has “had enough” come election time.

But with Fiji’s dictatorship, it is a potentially endless trial as the UIIMJR continuously moves the goalposts, re-invents its coup rationales, changes the rules, and makes up its mind as it goes. It keeps pointing to what it believes are its “positive reforms”, but seems to be completely unaware of the fact that the vast majority of these are simply policies that could and would be implemented by a normal, legal and democratic Government as a normal matter of governing course.

In fact, the Greeks understood the Greek word for citizenship as the active participation of those citizens in politics and political discourse.

The issue in Fiji, then. is people power as opposed to gun power. The people have the right to choose which leader, political organization or manifesto that best serves their needs. Freedom of choice is an intrinsic part of that process. However, the UIIMJR has removed this choice.

This is wrong, immoral, illegal and unsustainable!

It is the people who own Fiji – not Frank Bainimarama. So it is the people who should make decisions about our Fiji. It is the people, mandated by our humanity as “us and we”, who know what is best for Fiji and the Region. Aligning with the orthodox macro-economic ideas and accountable free human governance systems offered under Pacer Plus makes economic and developmental sense.

This is in stark contrast to the UIIMJR Charter and dictatorship, which have not been able to deliver and neither will it.

*Dr. Mere Tuisalalo Samisoni is the legal and elected SDL Member for Lami Open Constituency (deposed 2006).*

Can anyone really know the truth of Bainimarama's vision?

Opinion piece by Suliasi Daunitutu
Regional political expert Professor Stephen Hoadley said that Voreqe Bainimarama was “a bit off the mark” in his comment about severing ties with Australia and New Zealand and aligning with China.   
As he is an expert in the political landscape and operation of the region, I would consider his analysis as data that could be useful in contemplative guidelines for adjustment or even complete change.
I pondered on these critical examinations of Bainimarama’s views by Prof. Hoadley and asked a few questions myself as to what was the exact reasoning behind them.  I know that I won’t be able to conclude on Bainimarama’s mental conceptualisation of where the country is heading and how to achieve that.
The only thing I can do is, like Prof. Hoadley, make critical analysis of the situation and try to make a judgement based on my understanding of the issue and its complexity.
I will pose a few questions before I make that judgement.  My first question, if Bainimarama is going to abandon Fiji’s long-time partners in the Pacific, where trade has been established, friendship has been forged, ideas have been exchanged and mutual agreement has been reached in many occasions, even where the three countries have been shoulder to shoulder in armed conflicts and taken part inclusively around the globe in peacekeeping duties:
How long will the aligning process be allowed to continue, before we can be assured that the relationship between the two countries has reached the maturity of a solidified partnership like the Pacific neighbours have enjoyed?
In this trade exchange with the Asian superpower, what commodity would Fiji deliver that will interest China, and would there be a consistent supply to meet the demand, if there was any, given our geographical dimensions? 
And will there be an obstacle in the distance between the two countries where costs could play a major role?
Given Fiji’s present economical status, which leads me to believe that there is very little Fiji can offer China, except our biggest asset “land”?  Will this be an explanation to the rushed land reforms?
If the above questions have genuine concern in their answers and if my assumptions have the slightest truth in its epigrammatical statement of conception, would it be correct to say that China has no interest in Fiji.  
It has otherwise a keen interest in establishing a launching pad into the Asian Pacific region for displacement of population, distribution of industrial mass production factories and a bold attempt to have a go at the predominantly Australian, New Zealand and lately EU’s pie.
China has terrible work ethics and is a champion in mass production that accompanies long hours and low wages.  It has little land to build: why not use land that has been reformed to their tailored needs and have a spot in a region that is foreign and strategically placed to further their dominance in the global business and trade landscape?
Maybe Prof. Hoadley and many experts in the region have correctly identified the problem that Fiji will face, but does anyone really know the truth in Bainimarama’s vision?  Would my humble thoughts and questions confirm some of those claims?
I guess, we will have to wait for time to provide us with an answer.

Friday, August 13, 2010

Warning of growing arrogance

As Frank Bainimarama, who is visiting China, continues to sing the praise of that country and accuse our traditional neighbour Australia of arrogance, we hope he is also taking note of the arrogant mood of the Chinese, as below. 

Coupfourpoint five has also learnt that some Chinese investors were very upset when they visited the Fiji Day stall lately. Many had thought that they were going to attend Fuji Day, the possibility of investing in Fuji, Japan.

China scholars warn of growing national arrogance

Shirong Chen
File image of tourist looking at the Bund in Shanghai  
By Shirong Chen, BBC China Editor
The scholars said economic confidence was serving as a foundation for arrogance China's confidence in its economic development is turning into "national arrogance", according to a group of Chinese scholars. 
In a set of articles published in a state newspaper, they said that China might have lost its traditional virtue of being modest and become intolerant. 

And they questioned whether the world was misreading China or whether China itself was to blame. 

The cause lay in a refusal to accept some universal values, they said.

China is definitely changing. It is now the world's second largest economy after the United States. It has the biggest foreign exchange reserve - about $2.5 trillion (£1.6tn). 

And it is seen by the rest of the world as being more assertive, whether with regard to climate change or disputed claims in the South China Sea. 

There has been a clear surge of nationalism inside the country. The ancient Chinese tradition of keeping a low profile seems to have been abandoned. 

In the group of articles published by the International Herald Leader, a newspaper affiliated to the state news agency Xinhua, the four authors say aggressive and belligerent voices fill the nation's media and intoxicate popular thinking.

One of them, Mr Ye Hailin, says: "The huge achievement made during 30 years of reform and opening-up has brought about unprecedented material wealth for the nation. At the same time, it's inevitably contaminated us with unprecedented conceit and arrogance."

In a materialistic society, the authors say, the nation has lost its soul. The root cause, they say, lies in China's self-claimed uniqueness. 

Another of the authors, Yang Rui - a presenter on China Central Television's English channel, CCTV 9 - earlier this year wrote a book entitled Who Is Misreading China?

He argues: "The outside world would doubt our system even more if we harped on about the unique situation in China in defence of our values, which are not universally applicable."
The unorthodox but more balanced comments are particularly remarkable against the backdrop of China's strong reaction to the changes in the US strategy in East Asia. 

In recent weeks, a barrage of verbal attacks were followed by naval exercises by the Chinese fleet in the South China Sea.
The international community will now watch the debate closely, to see whether it will lead to any changes in China's behaviour on the world stage.

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Fiji to stay out of Pacer talks

The Fiji Broadcasting Corporation is reporting that Fiji will stay out of trade of talks on the Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations, also known as PACER Plus, despite efforts by the Pacific Islands Forum to re-engage them in trade negotiations.

Prime Minister Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama however says he will discuss the issue further with Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials when he returns from China.

“The reason why they’re saying Fiji should be now included in the PACER-Plus talks is because trade talks in the Pacific would be meaningless without Fiji…we had decided earlier on that we will refrain from any talks on PACER-Plus. We will see how things go, when I return I will be talking to our Foreign Affairs officials and see how things go. But we had decided to stay away from PACER Plus discussions."

On Monday, Foreign Affairs Minister Ratu Inoke Kubuabola welcomed NZ Prime Minister John Key’s call to re-engage Fiji in PACER talks.

However Ratu Inoke says PACER is no longer a promising instrument for development as it has been corrupted by regional politics.

He says Fiji had been illegally excluded from talks, and its entry back to PACER would be on its own terms.

The Minister further clarified that PACER Plus was not an immediate priority for Fiji as it is now concentrating on building its trade and economic ties with Asia and with the countries of the Non-Allied Movement.
- By Stanley Simpson; Radio Tarana

Monday, August 9, 2010

Fiji Labour Party questions awarding of $½m Rewa Dairy contract

Posted FLP website 5 August 2010, 1530

The authorities must investigate the awarding of a Rewa Dairy contract for $500,000 to a Suva accounting firm with very close connections to the Minister for Commerce, Aiyaz Sayed Khaiyum.

The contract for a restructure of the dairy company was awarded by the Ministry of Commerce to BDO Aliz, according to a report in The Fiji Times today. The Minister’s aunt, Dr. Nur Bano Ali is managing partner of the firm.

We are reliably informed that tenders were not called for the contract. If the contract was awarded by the Ministry of Commerce, then government rules and guidelines apply. Expressions of interest should have been invited for the project, and the Major Tenders board should have handled the entire matter.

Principles of transparency and accountability become even more compelling in a case where the contract is being given to close relations of the Minister.

Rewa Dairy chairman Josefa Serulagilagi (pictured above) said the contract was given to BDO “because they already had the paperwork for the reform”. This, by any standards, is a flimsy reason for awarding such a big contract,

One must also question how the contract sum of $500,000 was determined and by who? It is a huge sum for a contract of this nature, and the size of the company.

The entire reform programme is likely to cost about $1m according to the chairman.

Bainimarama: No armed soldiers in newsrooms

The Fiji Village is reporting the Prime Minister as telling the international community and the overseas media there are no armed soldiers in the newsrooms in Fiji.

The webste says Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama has told the ABC that it is misleading for News Limited to say that armed troops are in the newsrooms.

He also questioned the ABC why the Fiji Times newspaper did not allow the Australian news crew to go to the newsroom and film how they are publishing the newspaper.

Commodore Bainimarama said he never stopped the overseas media from going into the newsrooms and does not understand why this was not allowed by the Fiji Times.

He maintained that only the Ministry of Information staff are checking the stories under the Public Emergency Regulation.
By Vijay Narayan

Bainimarama continues China visit

Prime Minister Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama has continued his tour of China inspecting significant industrial and investment facilities and concepts.

Bainimarama today visited Ningbo city to inspect the Gee Li car manufacturing facility as well as a shipbuilding facility.

Ningbo is one of China’s oldest cities. An aide to the Prime Minister told FBC News that they visited Shuzhoo City over the weekend where the Fiji delegation was briefed on the concept of setting up an industrial park alongside maintenance and teaching facilities.

There are 15 universities at the Shuzhoo city industrial park that focus on research and development.

Tomorrow Bainimarama will visit Yiwu city, famous as a commodities centre and the home of what is claimed to be the biggest shopping mall in the world.

Unverified claims have been made that some retailers in Fiji buy from Yiwu and sell the products in Fiji at huge mark up prices.

Bainimarama is being accompanied on the tour by Fiji’s ambassador to China Sir James Ah Koy.

He returns to Fiji on Friday. By Stanley Simpson for the Fiji Broadcasting Corporation

'Fiji splits region'

By Epineri Vula for the Fiji Times
Monday, August 09, 2010

A FIJI-BORN academic says the Pacific's regional and sub regional bodies need to take a new approach on the Fiji issue because it is one of the reasons for the worsening fragmentation within those bodies.

Dr Steve Ratuva told Radio New Zealand International that historically the region solved differences, such as the standoff with the Fiji military regime, through talanoa, or talking through an issue, but this had been supplanted by diplomatic coercion.

Dr Ratuva, who teaches in Pacific Studies at Auckland University, pointed to the absence of some leaders from this week's Pacific Islands Forum summit, fractures within the Melanesian Spearhead Group and the refusal to involve Fiji in this week's African Caribbean and Pacific meeting in Vanuatu.

He said the Pacific should take a lesson from the ASEAN group of countries where members were not punished but engaged by other nations encouraging change.

"Because if everybody is punished because they have coups or they have political instabilities or lack of democracy or whatever then they will be no more member of ASEAN left," Dr Ratuva said.

"So in the Pacific I think perhaps in the long run they should begin to think in terms of having a proactive mechanism for this peace building rather than just punishment otherwise there is going to be one dimensional. We are going for division, fragmentation, rather than unity."

His comments came as Australia was forced to deny that South Pacific nations were split over support for Fiji's government, after several leaders failed to attend the annual summit of a bloc that suspended the island nation.

Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare and the leaders of the Solomons and Tuvalu stayed away from last week's summit, sending senior officials instead.

This is barely a week after attending the Engaging the Pacific summit in Fiji, which was hosted by head of government Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama.

Sir Michael has said since that Bainimarama should be recognised as Fiji's legitimate prime minister.

Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith has denied a split within the Forum, saying that the summit took place as an election was being held in the Solomon Islands and that the other absences may be for good reasons.

"I detect no inkling, no support, no suggestion that the Pacific Island Forum would do anything other than that which it has done in the past, which is to unanimously adopt the position that Fiji is suspended from the forum pending a return to democracy," he told reporters.

Smith said the "circumstances have not changed but deteriorated". He added that the situation with Fiji was regrettable but the Forum would try to find a way to engage in dialogue with Fiji through its Secretariat in Suva.

"The forum stands united and remains committed to assisting Fiji to return to democratic rule," Tongan PM Feleti Sevele said.

This comes as reports surface of calls for Australia and New Zealand to back off and let island nations negotiate with their neighbour.

"There's a feeling there should be more Pacific in the Pacific," said Kiribati President Anote Tong.

Tong said he was not alone in thinking more progress would be made with Fiji if New Zealand and Australia were not part of it.

As the representatives from 15 forum countries met, Prime Minister Edward Natapei told regional leaders that Pacific Island nations have a responsibility to remain engaged with Fiji.

"As leaders of Pacific Island nations we have the duty and responsibility to remain engaged with Fiji so that democratic principals and practices can be restored in Fiji as soon as possible," he said.

Tong said he believed there needed to be a more traditional approach towards Fiji.

"I think they (Australia and New Zealand) have their own style of doing things. I suspect it's not working very well at the moment. When you are having a head-on collision with somebody you are not the right person to be talking with that person," he said.

"Quite frankly I believe that there is more likelihood of exchange among the Pacific countries themselves," he said.
PACNEWS reported that the forum received an updated report on Fiji that found the country had made no progress toward returning democratic rule, and as a result the country's suspension would stand.

But leaders agreed to consider allowing Fiji to rejoin free trade talks, and to try to engage with Bainimarama's government on democracy.

In addition to the suspended Fiji, the forum comprises Australia, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

Has Chaudhry lost faith in Resident Fiji Judges?

Chaudhry wants new judge to preside over case

Fijivillage News: 06/08/2010 [16:50]

Former Prime Minister and Fiji Labour Party Leader Mahendra Chaudhry appeared in the Suva High Court this morning charged with 12 counts of alleged money laundering, tax evasion and not declaring foreign currency.

DPP lawyer Aca Rayawa informed High Court Judge Justice Daniel Gounder that Chaudhry's lawyer Rajendra Chaudhry had filed an application of recusal for the case to be presided by a non-resident judge.

Judge Gounder asked Rayawa how long it will take for him to reply, Rayawa stated that they needed one week to reply to the application.

The case has been adjourned to the 20th August where Judge Gounder will hear the application before making a decision.

It is alleged that Chaudhry between 1st November 2000 to 23rd July this year failed to follow procedures when investing in certain institutions overseas, also not declaring that he had Australian currency with him and also allegedly giving false statement in his tax return forms.

The amount alleged in the case is $1.5 million Australian.-Tokasa Rainima and Ana Naisoro